An unprecedented wave of workers’ and farmers’ struggles spread across the whole country through the year that is coming to an end. It challenged the Modi government and its pro-rich, anti-working people, anti-farmer policies, forcing the govt. to reverse course in some cases. These battles spanned issues related to falling living standards, growing inequality and loot by the ruling classes, as also the communal politics of the sangh parivar that is trying to divide people on religious identity lines. These struggles were increasingly diverse, yet more united, weaving together different industrial sectors and also forging unity between peasants and workers.

Continuing from the past few years’ movement for better prices for agricultural produce, freedom from debt and end to forcible land acquisition, farmers in several regions were on the roads, sometimes facing police bullets (Mandsaur, MP; Maharashtra) and at other places forcing the authorities to bow to their demands (Rajasthan). The broad platforms of struggle evolved in previous years gained immense strength in 2017 in terms of scale of activities and mobilizing strength.

In dozens of public sector units – ports, steel plants, coal mines, ordnance factories, banks, insurance companies, etc. – workers went on strikes or protested against relentless govt. pressure to privatise national assets by handing them over to private industrialists. Contract workers and ‘scheme workers’ (those employed in govt. schemes) saw large scale protests, often confronting police attacks in various states. Unorganised sector workers like those in the road transport sector fought against proposed laws to squeeze out small units and privatise public services. And in industrial areas from the north-east to Gujarat and from Himachal Pradesh to Tamil Nadu, workers braved attacks from police and hired goons to fight for their livelihoods.

Diverse strands of struggles were brought together in two major protests held in the capital Delhi in November. One was the historic 3-day ‘maha-padav’ (mass sit in) in which about 2 lakh workers participated, pressing the govt. to accept their long pending demands which include, minimum wage of Rs.18,000, end to contractor-raj and privatization, control of prices and strengthening of PDS, withdrawal of neo-liberal labour law reforms, etc. The other, also in November, saw a 2-day ‘Kisan Mukti Sansad’ (farmers’ liberation parliament) in which over 1 lakh farmers congregated at Delhi, including families of farmers that had committed suicide due to debt and losses.

So, 2017 became not only a year of deep ferment among India’s working people, it also saw increasing intertwining of two biggest classes of Indian society – workers and peasants. This was repeatedly seen in several struggles. Trade unions held protests across the country on 16 June after five farmers were killed in a brutal police attack on protesting farmers in Mandsaur. Workers participated in large numbers in protests organized in 150 districts on 9 August by the Bhoomi Adhikar Andolan, a joint platform of peasant and other organizations. Workers also joined the massive kisan mukti yatras that covered over 10,000 kms mobilizing farmers.

Farmers’ Struggles
2017 could well be the year of the struggling farming. High indebtedness, often leading to suicides, inability to meet even cost of production due to unremunerative prices, land acquisitions, low agricultural wages all contributed to ever deepening agrarian crisis that burst out in angry protests in MP, Maharashtra, Karnataka, UP, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, W.Bengal and other states. In most places, it was met with strong arm methods by govts. but such was the pressure that almost all state govts. were forced to announce debt waivers. The most significant victory was in Rajasthan where the govt. was forced to concede various demands after a massive movement led by AIKS. Due to the farmers pressure, the government was also forced to roll back the notification banning sale of cattle for slaughter in animal market. Farmers led by AIKS had burnt copies of the notification in most districts of the country. The matter was also taken to the Supreme Court. Farmers organizations have waged a battle against cow vigilantism – the harassment and even killing of farmers transporting cattle by Hindu fanatic groups. Over 30 such deaths by lynching have been reported till date. AIKS collected funds to support the families of some of the victims.

In Maharashtra, an unprecedented statewide bandh was called for by different peasant organizations with the Maharashtra Rajya Kisan Sabha (affiliated to AIKS) playing a leading role.

Lakhs of peasants and agricultural workers came out on streets of Kolkata for Nabanna Rally organized by AIKS, AIAWU and other organizations on 22nd May, 2017. It was met by brutal repression by the TMC govt.’s police leading to the death of one comrade.

There have been a series of struggles of adivasis for implementation of the Forest Rights Act and against evictions. In Jharkhand sustained and militant struggles of adivasis on a joint platform including the Adivasi Adhikar Manch and Kisan Sabha against the amendments to the Chotanagpur and Santhal Parganas Tenancy Acts by the BJP State Government. There were police firings in which one adivasi participant was killed and several injured. Ultimately the joint movement forced the Government to withdraw the amendments

All these struggles were woven together through a Kisan Mukti Yatra that travelled 10,000 kms across the country mobilizing farmers for increased struggles, ultimately converging at the Delhi ‘Kisan Mukti Sansad’ in Delhi on 21-22 November 2017. Over 2 lakh farmers participated in the historic event. Families of over 40 farmers who committed suicide due to unpayable debt burden and losses in farming were also present, narrating their harrowing experiences. The Sansad adopted two ‘bills’ for complete debt waiver and for ensuring remunerative prices for farmers’ produce.

Workers’ Struggles
A major strand of workers’ struggles was against Modi govt.’s privatization drive. In its three and a half year reign, Modi’s so called nationalist govt. has sold off Rs.1.25 lakh crore worth of public sector assets to private buyers, putting at risk thousands of jobs. Protests against these moves spread through workers in public sector undertakings throughout the country. In most of these struggles CITU played a leading role, often uniting other trade unions in a joint platform.

Defense production employees held a 45 day relay hunger strike in July. In Tamil Nadu, Kamrajar Port employees protested against sale of the profit making port to Adani Group, reportedly a crony of Modi. Bharat Earth Movers Ltd employees went on strike in May in Kolar and Mysore districts of Karnataka and Palakkad district (Kerala) against disinvestment. In March, Cochin shipyard workers went on strike against 25% privatization. In April, workers went on strike in three steel plants (Durgapur, Salem and Bhadrawati) which were up for sale. Dredging Corp. workers also struck work in April. In Haryana, state road transport workers went on a lightning strike against plan to handover routes to private operators. There were huge protests in coal mines against closure of 10 ECL mines in West Bengal. NALCO workers in Odisha protested against privatization. On 28 February, bank employees across the country held a one day strike against govt. plans of privatization. Again, on 22 August the bank employees struck work demanding an end to merger move of public sector banks, demanding stringent action against willful defaulters etc.

One of the significant features of workers’ struggles in 2017 was the high participation of women. This was mainly because women dominated scheme workers fought a bitter and arduous battle against govt. fund cuts and refusal to treat them as regular employees. There are about 1 crore scheme workers in the country, employed on irregular or contract basis, though they work year round delivering services like primary healthcare, meals in schools, child care and nutrition, etc. During 2017 scheme workers held protest actions in Maharashtra, Assam, Kerala, AP, Uttarakhand, Karnataka, Haryana, Punjab, Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Assam, among others. They also successfully held a one day country-wide strike on 20 January 2016 which was preceded by demonstrations in practically all districts. Later in the year, on 21 August, ASHA workers (health workers) held a massive protest at the Parliament, submitting nearly 50 lakh signatures from villagers from all over the country in support of their demands.

Even government employees, both central and state, were on the warpath against govt. delays in implementing pay commission recommendations and changes in pension plans. Over 13 lakh central govt. employees went on strike on 16 March while on 2 March state govt employees’ held a mass dharna at Delhi demanding withdrawal of a new pension scheme, against out-sourcing of work and other demands. Municipal workers in AP, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu held protests and strikes against similar outsourcing of jobs to private contractors. In Karnataka, even gram panchayat workers protested against similar issues.

Road transport workers in various parts of the country struggled against the proposed new law for privatization, including in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, W.Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Assam, Karnataka, etc. Construction workers, mostly in the unorganized sector protested against low wages, job losses and repression in various states including Haryana, W.Bengal etc. A countrywide strike by medical sales representatives was held in February demanding cost based capping of medicine, nil tax and regulation of working conditions in MNCs. Workers from 300 tea gardens in W.Bengal went on a 2-day strike demanding better wages. They had to face police brutality. In Tamil Nadu, fishermen held protests against a govt. law prohibiting them from going beyond three nautical miles out in the sea. Beedi workers in several states protested against low wages. Even LIC agents held a protest rally in Delhi in August against govt. policy regarding the insurance sector.

In many states, like Karnataka, W.Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Assam etc. huge protests were held by joint platforms of trade unions and other organizations against price rise, farmers’ debts, job losses and other people’s issues.

As the year ends, the foundation laid by these struggles – and many others not mentioned – will become a launching pad for widening struggles in the coming months. Ultimately, the aim is to reverse the anti-people policies followed by this and previous govts. and install a pro-people dispensation with an alternative set of policies.